The Kashmir Bridge in Pakistan is made of low-strength concrete structures ranging from 12.4 MPa to 16.5 MPa. After the disaster, the government rehabilitated the bridge and conducted research as well energy dissipation for damaged bridges with concrete strength between 12.4 MPa to 16.5 MPa reassembled with double or single layers of CFRP that can increase the strength of reinforced concrete beams. CFRP retrofitting on damaged piers doesn’t only restore their original strength but also increases the lateral load capacity considerably as well. From the ACI 440.2R-08 guidelines for FRP Strengthening of Concrete Structures, it is stated that the FRP system should not be used when the concrete substrate has a compressive strength of less than 17 MPa. However, the present research has established the sense that FRP strengthening can be useful to lower strength concrete up to 12.4 MPa. So for the conclusion we get that CFRP is a structural reinforcement material that is corrosion-resistant, has high tensile strength, superior in ductility, and is lightweight which can replace the value of compressive strength in construction, be it bridges or buildings.


Khan, Q. U., Ahmad, A., Mehboob, S., & Iqbal, M. (2021). Energy dissipation characteristics of retrofitted damaged low-strength concrete bridge pier. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Bridge Engineering, 174(2), 148-156.