Utilizing Portland cement as the main material to produce concrete is eminent for construction projects around the world. However, approaching the present era, many researchers examined and tried to modify concrete with the purpose to create advanced structures. The first project that they had done was utilizing nanoparticles, i.e. fly ash, and mixed it with cement. This project gave a great outcome, which attains increasing attention of researchers on various kinds of nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles, such as carbon nanofiber, carbon nanotube, carbon black, silica nanoparticles, etc.

Graphene, another kind of carbon nanoparticle with the form of the hexagon shape atomic layer, is known as the material that will enhance the mechanical properties of cement such as flexural strength and compressive strength into more advanced by adding it into the cement mixture, which shows a result as super-concrete structure. Jamal (2014) stated that by adding Graphene Oxide (GO) – derivatives of graphene – could enhance its compressive strength by 15% to 33% and 41% to 59% for its flexural strength. This happens due to the reinforcement of GO that creates a strong adhesion with the cement matrix. Other than that, there is also a covalent bond between GO and the matrix, which is form by the interaction between C-S-H or Ca(OH)2 with the carboxylic acid group contains in the GO layer. Hence, the flexural strength and compressive strength could improve. Moreover, the other mechanical properties including elastic modulus, pore size distribution, chloride diffusivity, thermal conductivity, the heat of hydration and provides sensing, EMI shielding, and wave absorption will be improved as well by the additional graphene into cement.


Jamal, T. B., Tasnim, J. Pial, Z. B., & Rumman, R. (2016). A Review Paper on Graphene Modified Cement. BUET-ANWAR ISPAT 1st Bangladesh Civil Engineering SUMMIT 2016, 146-153. ISBN: 978-984-34-1512-7.